10 David Elmouttie Grant Hamilton 2011 Case Study 2 - Sampling and surveillance in the grains industry 27 <p>Effective sampling and surveillance strategies form an integral component of large agricultural industries such as the grains industry. Intensive fine scale sampling is essential for pest detection, integrated pest management and to ensure trade routes are secured, while surveillance over broad geographic regions ensures that biosecurity risks can be excluded, monitored, eradicated or contained. Significant research into techniques to maximise surveillance and fine scale sampling has been conducted in the grain industry. Primarily, the research has focussed on fine scale sampling strategies concentrating on &lsquo;within silo&rsquo; detection however the need for effective surveillance strategies has been recognised. Interestingly, although surveillance and fine scale sampling has typically been considered independently, many techniques and concepts are common between the two fields. This review aims to consider the historical development of fine scale sampling and surveillance strategies and to identify methods that may be useful for both surveillance and fine scale sampling.</p>